Updated April 2020
See also: ‘A’ is for Atlantic Highway
Many current maps, not least Google Maps, identify a territory called ‘Western Sahara’. The dashed border along its northern edge gives a hint that there is no actual country called ‘Western Sahara‘.
The map on the left was drawn for my Morocco Overland 3 guidebook and gives a more detailed idea of how this area breaks up.
The N1 highway down the coast of ‘Western Sahara’ to Mauritania is straightforward and safe and essentially a continuation of Morocco. More here
The former colony of Spanish Sahara, (left) was relinquished by Spain in favour of Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, against the wishes of the indigenous Saharawi (‘Saharans’) and their Polisario Front which had been agitating for independence since the 1960s. A few months later the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) was declared by the Polisario.
Michael Mercer’s 1975 book, Spanish Sahara describes the region’s geography and history, and Skeletons on the Zahara is another good read set in the area. John Lodwick’s pompous and convoluted The Forbidden Coast (1956), is less so.
By 1979 Morocco had annexed the resource-rich west of the territory to which it had long made claims. As a result of that, a war broke out with Algeria (allied with Mauritania for a while) who both claimed to support the Saharawi and the SADR.
In 1991 the UN brokered a ceasefire and a referendum to decide the future of the territory. MINURSO bases are still dotted around the territory (a 2014 MINURSO map). But by this time Morocco had populated its part of the territory with northern Moroccans so as to win any referendum which anyway, has been repeatedly postponed since then. Laayoune today has a population of some 200,000, most of them northerners benefitting from ‘frontier territory’ subsidies.
In the meantime Morocco began building a series of defensive berms, spreading in successive waves further south (left; fanack), until by 1987 the current 1500-km long militarised wall or Berm divided the territory longitudinally, like a modern Great Wall of China. The Atlantic side – two-thirds of the territory – are known as Morocco’s Southern Provinces. East of the Berm as far as the Mauritanian border is the Polisario Free Zone (PFZ), supported by Algeria which also hosts many Saharawi refugee camps over the border in nearby Tindouf.
From Google maps you can see the Berm cuts a corner off northwest Mauritania for about 50km (left), so dividing the PFZ into two regions. Not all maps displayed on this page accurately show this delineation, and who knows if this is a former ‘forward line’ of the Berm which is currently unmanned. It is almost certainly mined. Whatever, it forces the Saharawi of the PFZ to cut across Mauritania in the vicinity of Bir Mogrein when they want to get from Tindouf and the northern PFZ where the SADR administrative body sits, to the less populated southern sector. One can speculate that the Mauritanians tolerate these transits as long as the non-Mauritanian Saharawi (ethnically Moors, anyway) stay north of a certain area, perhaps well north of Zouerat. Further south one hears the latitudinal railway border between the PFZ and Mauritania is respected by the army and police of both sides, although it’s said Saharawi nomads seasonally pass over the border and back.
What does this all mean to the desert traveller?
You can easily travel down the all-sealed N1 Atlantic Route in Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara to Mauritania with no problems bar a few checkpoints where a fiche (click to download template) is handy. Fuel is discounted south of Tan Tan and fuel stations are frequent enough in the desert between the main towns of Laayoune and Dakhla.
Inland travel is much less common. A couple of roads and pistes lead to mines, small Saharawi settlements, and Moroccan military bases embedded along the landmined and patrolled Berm. Zoom in with Google sat and you can see these installations clearly. We travelled in this area in 2019 (below; well away from the Berm) and there’s even a French guidebook listing routes (above right). But the rather dull landscape and risk of landmines when away from well-used pistes puts people off. See this, summarised in the box, left.
The Dakar Rally (below) used to run from Smara or Guelta Zemmour in Morocco, briefly across the PFZ and into northern Mauritania, but since at least 2002 tourists cannot cross the Berm – formerly with least difficulty along the main piste linking Guelta Zemmour with Bir Mogrein.
A couple of travellers have traversed the PFZ’s southeast corner which is used by locals as a shortcut between Nouadhibou and Zouerat to avoid the Azzefal dunes (above left). But as a foreigner, once noticed or arriving at Zug you may be escorted via a couple of UN-bases northeast to Arounit close to the Mauritanian border and south of Zouerat.
In the PFZ you may find Spanish more commonly spoken than French, and it’s said you can get by with no visa or invitation letter, use Mauritanian ouguiya and buy cheap Algerian fuel.
A 2017 report from the area. Another from 2020.